Recent Research on 1,3 1,6 beta glucans including Wellmune

Clinical Research

Fuller R, Moore MV, Lewith G, Stuart BL, Ormiston RV, F isk HL, Noakes PS, Calder PC. (2017) Yeast-Derived Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection andInnate Immunity in Older Adults. Nutrition 39-40:30-35.

Meng F. (2016) Baker’s Yeast Bet a-Glucan Decreases Episodes of Common Child hoodIllness In 1 to 4 Year Old Children during Cold Season in China. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences 6:518.

Pontes MV, Ribeiro TCM, Ribeiro H, de Mattos AP, Almeida IR, Leal VM, Cabral GN, Stolz S, Zhuang W, Scalabrin DMF. (2016) Cow's Milk-Based Beverage Consumption in 1- to 4-Year-Olds and Allergic Manifestations: an RCT. Nutrition Journal 15:19-28.

Li F, Jin X, Liu B, Zhuang W, Scalabrin D. (2014) Follow-up Formula Consumption in 3- to 4-Year-Olds and Respiratory Infections: An RCT. Pediatrics 133:e1533-40.

McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, McFarlin MA. (2013) Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan Supplementation Increases Salivary IgA and Decreases Cold/Flu Symptomatic Days After Intense Exercise. Journal of Dietary Supplements 10:171-183.

Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. (2013) Baker's Yeast Beta-Glucan Supplementation Increases Monocytes and Cytokines Post-Exercise: Implications of Infection Risk? British Journal of Nutrition 109:478-486.

Talbott SM, Talbott JA, Talbott TL, Dingler E. (2013) "ß-Glucan Supplementation, Allergy Symptoms and Quality of Life in Self-Described Ragweed Allergy Sufferers. Food Science & Nutrition 1:90-101.

Fuller R, Butt H, Noakes PS, Kenyon J, Yam TS, Calder PC. (2012) Influence of Yeast-Derived 1,3/1,6 Glucopolysaccharide on Circulating Cytokines and Chemokines with Respect to Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Nutrition 28:665-669.

Talbott SM, Talbott JA. (2012) Baker's Yeast Beta-Glucan Supplement Reduces Upper Respiratory Symptoms and Improves Mood State in Stressed Women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 31:295-300.

Talbott S, Talbott J. (2010) Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan Decreases Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Improves Psychological Well-Being in Moderate to Highly-Stressed Subjects. Agro FOOD Industry Hi-Tech 21:21-24.

Talbott S, Talbott J. (2009) Effect of Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Mood State in Marathon Athletes. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 8:509-515.

Feldman S, Schwartz HI, Kalman DS, Mayers A, Kohrman HM, Clemens R, Krieger DR. (2009) Randomized Phase II Clinical Trials of Wellmune® for Immune Support During Cold and Flu Season. Journal of Applied Research 9:30-42.

Harger-Domitrovich SG, Domitrovich JW, Ruby BC. (2008) Effects of an Immunomodulating Supplement on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms in Wildland Firefighters. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 40:S353.

Preclinical Research

Bose N, Wurst LR, Chan AS, Dudney CM, LeRoux ML, Danielson ME, Will PM, Nodland SE, Patchen ML, Dalle Lucca JJ, Lebeda FJ, Vasilakos JP. (2014) Differential Regulation of Oxidative Burst by Distinct ß-glucan-binding Receptors and Signaling Pathways in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Glycobiology 24:379-391.

Goodridge HS, Reyes CN, Becker CA, Katsumoto TR, Ma J, Wolf AJ, Bose N, Chan AS, Magee AS, Danielson ME, Weiss A, Vasilakos JP, Underhill DM. (2011) Activation of the Innate Immune Receptor Dectin-1 upon Formation of a 'Phagocytic Synapse'. Nature 472:471-475.

Driscoll M, Hansen R, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J. (2009) Therapeutic Potential of Various Beta-Glucan Sources in Conjunction with Anti-tumor Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Cancer Therapy. Cancer Biology & Therapy 8:218-25.

Babicek K, Cechova I, Simon RR, Harwood M, Cox DJ. (2007) Toxicological Assessment of a Particulate Yeast (1,3/1,6)-beta-D-glucan in Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45:1719-1730.

Lavigne LM, Albina JE, Reichner JS. (2006) Beta-glucan is a Fungal Determinant for Adhesion-dependent Human Neutrophil Functions. Journal of Immunology 177:8667-8675.

Li B, Allendorf DJ, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J. (2006) Yeast Beta-glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pathway. Journal of Immunology 177:1661-1669.

Cramer DE, Allendorf DJ, Baran JT, Hansen RD, Marroquin J, Li B, Ratajczak MZ, Yan J. (2006) Beta-glucan Enhances Complement-mediated Hematopoietic Recovery After Bone Marrow Injury. Blood 107:835-840.

Allendorf DJ, Yan J, Ross GD, Hansen RD, Baran JT, Subbarao K, Wang L, Haribabu B. (2005) C5a-mediated Leukotriene B4-amplified Neutrophil Chemotaxis is Essential in Tumor Immunotherapy Facilitated by Antitumor Monoclonal Antibody
and Beta-Glucan. Journal of Immunology 174:7050-7056.

Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B. (2005) Yeast Whole Glucan Particle Beta-Glucan in Conjunction with Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies to Treat Cancer. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 5:691-702.

Tsikitis VL, Albina JE, Reichner JS. (2004) Beta-Glucan Affects Leukocyte Navigation in a Complex Chemotactic Gradient. Surgery 136:384-389.

Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Xing PX, Cheung NV, Ross GD. (2004) Mechanism by which Orally Administered Beta-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models. Journal of Immunology 173:797-806.

Analytical Research

Danielson ME, Dauth R, Elmasry NA, Langeslay RR, Magee AS, Will PM. (2010) Enzymatic Method to Measure ß-1,3-ß-1,6-glucan Content in Extracts and Formulated Products (GEM Assay). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 19:10305-10308.

Magee A, Danielson M, Dauth R, Stevenson T, Will P. (2008) Analysis of Side Chain Lengths of Branched ß-1,3-Glucans by Alkaline Degradation. A poster presentation at the International Carbohydrate Symposium in Oslo, Norway.

Selected Older Research

Jung K, Ha Y, Ha SK, Han DU, Kim DW, Moon WK, Chae C. Antiviral effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan to swine influenza virus by increased production of interferon-gamma and nitric oxide. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. Mar;51(2):72-6, 2004

Kournikakis B, Mandeville R, Brousseau P, Ostroff G. Anthrax-protective effects of yeast beta 1,3 glucans. MedGenMed. 2003 Mar 21;5(1):1

Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD. Preparation of microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation. Lett Appl Microbiol. 35(4):267-71, 2002.

Vetvicka V, Terayama K, Ostroff G et al. Orally-administered Yeast B1,3-glucan prophylactically protects against anthrax infection and cancer in mice. J of the Amer Nutraceutical Assc. 5(2): 1-20; Spring 2002.

Vetvicka V, Terayama K, Mandeville R, Brousseau P, Kournikakis B, Ostroff G. Pilot Study:Orally-Administered Yeast Beta 1,3-glucan Prophylactically Protects Against Anthrax Infection and Cancer in Mice. J Am Nutraceutical Assocn 5:1-5, 2002

de Felippe JJ, da Rocha-Silva FM, Maciel FM, Soares A de M, Mendes NF. Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator beta 1-3 polyglucose (glucan). Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 177(4): 383-388; 1993.

Onderdonk AB, Cisneros RL, Hinkson P, Ostroff G. Anti-infective effect of poly-beta-1,6-glucotriosyl-beta 1,3glucapyranose glucan in vivo. Infection & Immunity 60:1642-1647, 1992

Rasmussen, LT, Konopski Z, Oian P, Seljelid R. Killing of Escherichia coli by mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils stimulated in vitro with beta-1, 3-D-polyglucose derivatives. Microbiol Immunol 36(11):1173-1188. 1992.

Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R. Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release. J Cell Biochem; 46:60-68. 1991.

Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R. Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release. J Cell Biochem 46:60-68. 1991.

Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R. Dynamics of blood components and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with beta-1, 3-D-polyglucose derivatives. I: Cells. Scand J Immunol 32(4): 321-331. 1990.

Patchen ML. Radioprotective effect of oral administration of beta-1,3-glucan. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda , MD Research Report, 1989.

Czop JK, Valiante NM, Janusz MJ. Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors, Prog Clin Biol Res 297:287-96, 1989.

Patchen ML, D'Alesandro MM, Brook I, Blakely WF, McVittie TJ. Glucan: mechanisms involved in its "radioprotective" effect. J Leuc Biol 42: 95-105, 1987

Czop JK, Austen KF. A b-glucan inhibitable receptor on human monocytes: its identity with the phagocytic receptor for particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway. J Immunol 134: 2588-2593, 1985

Patchen ML, McVittie TJ. Stimulated hemopoesis and enhanced survival following glucan treatment in sublethally and lethally irradiated mice. Int J Immunopharmac 7: 923-932, 1985

Di Luzio NR, Williams DL. The role of glucan in the prevention and modification of microparasitic diseases. In: Assessments of chemical regulation of immunity in veterinary medicine. Gainer JH, ed. NY: Scientific, Medical and Scholarly Pub., 1983

Leibovich SJ, Danon D. Promotion of wound repair in mice by application of glucan. J Reticuloendothelial Soc 1980; 27: 1-11.

Mansell PW, Ichinose H, Reed RJ, Krementz ET, McNamee R, Di Luzio NR. Macrophage-mediated destruction of human malignant cells in vivo. J Natl Cancer Inst Mar;54(3):571-80, 1975